29 Fakten über die Struktur und Eigenschaften von KOH Lewis: Warum und wie?

Potassium hydroxide or caustic potash is an inorganic moiety. Its molar mass is 56.11 g/mol. Let us summaries KOH Lewis structure and all facts in detail.

KOH is the simple alkali metal hydroxide strong base. It is white colour solid that mostly appears in pellets or flakes. Potassium hydroxide is a strong base that’s why it is thermally high stable. KOH absorb moisture from the air, due to its hygroscopic nature.

KOH more efficiently conducts electricity as compared to NaOH. Hence it acts as an electrolyte.  Let us discuss the shape, hybridization, bond angle and many more characteristics of KOH.

How to draw KOH Lewis structure?

Lewis structure determines the intermolecular bonding in the molecule. Let us try to draw Lewis structure as follows.

Anzahl der Valenzelektronen

KOH molecule contains total eight valence electrons. Out of them, oxygen has 6 valence electrons. potassium and hydrogen have 1 electron each.

Bond formation in KOH

 We know that potassium is an alkali metal which can donate electrons and hydroxide can accept electrons. Hence potassium forms an ionic bond with hydroxide ions.

Lewis structure of KOH

While forming the Lewis structure of KOH potassium has 1 positive charge. Oxygen and hydrogen share their electrons and complete their octet.

koh lewis structure
Lewis structure of KOH

KOH Lewis structure resonance

Resonance represents the delocalization of electrons around the double bond present in the molecule. Let us see resonance in KOH below.

KOH does not undergo resonance. Because it is an ionic compound formed by positively and negatively charged ions. It does not have any double bond in them for delocalization.

KOH Lewis structure shape

The shape of any molecule can be determined according to VSEPR theory.  Let us find out the shape of KOH.

The Lewis structure shape of KOH is linear. Because it undergoes sp3 hybridization. Those molecules which have 1 s and 3 p hybrid orbitals show sp3 hybridization. KOH molecule has 1s and 3p orbital all are combined and form 4 hybridized orbital. Here all three atoms are placed in starlight line.

KOH Lewis structure formal charge

The formal charges of any molecule can be calculated by the number of bonding electrons, nonbonding electrons and valence electrons. Let us find out the formal charge.

Formal charge in KOH molecule is = No. of valence electrons (V) – No. of non–bonding electrons (N) – No. of bonding electrons B/2

  • Formal charge of K in KOH molecule = 1-0-1 = 0
  • Formal charges of O in KOH molecule = 6- 3- 3 = 0
  • Formal charges of H in KOH molecule = 1-0-1 = 0
  • Therefore, in the KOH molecule Potassium, oxygen and hydrogen atom have zero formal charges.

KOH Lewis structure angle

Lewis structure angle is the angle made by the atoms present in the molecule. Let us figure out the angle form by KOH molecule.

Lewis structure angle of KOH molecule is 180 o. Because this molecule shows linear geometry. All the atoms are placed in a straight line hence they form a linear angle.

KOH Lewis structure octet rule

According to the Octet rule, any atom has 8 electrons in its valence shell during the bond formation. Let us determine whether the KOH follows the octet rule.

KOH Lewis structure requires 8 valence electrons to fulfil their octet rule. The potassium atom has 1 valence electron, oxygen has 6 valence electrons and the hydrogen atom has 1 valence electron. Therefore, oxygen requires 2 electrons to complete its octet.

Potassium donates one valence electron to an oxygen atom and hydrogen. Also shares its one valence electron with an oxygen atom. By donating 1 electron potassium completes its octet. Also by accepting 2 electron oxygen completes its octet. And hydrogen share 1 electron for complete its duplet and becomes stable.

KOH Lewis structure lone pairs

Lone pair of electrons does not form any bond between the atoms. Let us find out the lone pairs in the KOH molecule.

KOH Lewis structure has three lone pairs. Which are present on oxygen atom and does not participate in bond formation.

KOH valence electrons

Valence electrons are present in the outermost orbital of the atoms present in the molecule. These are more reactive and form bonds. Let us discuss valence electrons.

KOH Lewis structure has a total of 8 valence electrons. Out of them, potassium has 1 valence electron, oxygen has 6 valence electrons and hydrogen has 1 valence electron.  Therefore, KOH has total 1+6+1 = 8 valence electrons.

KOH hybridization

Hybridization is the process in which the mixing of atomic orbitals of atoms forms a hybrid orbital. Let us determine the hybridization of KOH.

KOH Lewis structure does not undergo any hybridization. Because it is an ionic compound. So there is no mixing of atomic orbitals and formation of the stable hybrid orbital. It is the mixing of orbitals that only takes place in the covalent compound. And Ionic compound does not undergo hybridization.

Is KOH an acid or base?

The acidity and basicity of any molecule depend upon its acceptance and donation of H+ ions. Let us discuss whether KOH is basic or acidic.  

KOH is basic.  The basic nature is also determined by measuring the pH of the solution. Therefore, the pH of KOH solution is 10 to 13 hence. it is basic in nature. KOH donate the H+ ions to others and form hydroxide ions.

Why KOH is Basic?

KOH is basic when dissolve in an aqueous solution. It dissociates into ions that are K+ and OH- ions. The molecule donates a proton to the other atom then that doner atom is basic in nature. Which can donate electrons pair to another compound. It shows pH 10-13.

Is KOH an electrolyte?

The electrolyte is a substance when dissolved in water dissociates into cations and anions. Which conducts electricity. Let us see whether KOH is an electrolyte.

KOH is act as an electrolyte. Because in aqueous solution it dissociates into ions when it dissolves in water it dissociates into K+ cation and OH – anion. These ions carry electricity. Also an aqueous solution of KOH conducts electricity.

Is KOH a strong electrolyte?

A strong electrolyte is a solute or solution that completely dissociates into ions. Which carry electricity with the help of that ions.

KOH is a strong electrolyte due to its dissociation into strong ions. Which transfer electricity from its aqueous solution. The conductivity of these K+ and OH- ions is also high. Moreover the dissociation of ions more will be the attraction between them .

Is KOH a salt ?

Salt is a substance which is made by the reaction of cations and anions. So let us find out whether KOH is salt.

KOH act as salt. Because when the K+ cation reacts with OH – anion then KOH salt forms. Salt is a neutral substance formed by the reaction of cation and anion.

Is KOH soluble in water?

Nearly all the salts are completely dissolved in water and dissociate into cation and anions. Let us find out the solubility of KOH in water.

KOH is soluble in water. When it dissolves in water it dissociates into K+ and OH- ions. Because it is an ionic salt, it will easily break the bond present in the molecule when dissolved in water. And dissociates into ions.

All salts are not completely dissolved in water because it has a more hydration enthalpy. Hence it requires more energy to break the bonds present in the molecule. Therefore, it cannot easily be converted into ions.

Is KOH hygroscopic?

Hygroscopic means the molecule tends to absorb or adsorb the water from the nearby environment. Let us discuss whether KOH is hygroscopic or not.

KOH is highly hygroscopic. Because it can absorb water from the environment at normal room temperature.

Why and How KOH is hygroscopic?

KOH is hygroscopic . It absorb water molecule from the environment and start dissociation into ions. Hence when it comes in contact with air it reacts with moisture which is present in the environment and water molecules adsorb on KOH. So usually avoid KOH to comes in contact with the environment.

Is KOH deliquescent?

Deliquescent means the ability of a solid to convert into liquid when comes in contact with air. Let us see if KOH is deliquescent or not.

KOH is deliquescent because it is solid and can convert into liquid. This conversion occurs when the vapor pressure of the molecule is less than the partial pressure of water in the air. The vapor pressure of KOH is less than the partial pressure of water in the air.

Is KOH solid or aqueous?

Solid is a closely packed structure with a fixed volume and shape. While an aqueous solution is formed when a solid dissolve in water and then dissociates into OH- ion.

KOH is in solid form with a fixed volume and shape. But when it dissolves in water it dissociates into OH- ions or K+ ions. Hence KOH acts as a solid as well as an aqueous solution.

Is KOH ionic or covalent?

Ionic substances when dissolved in water dissociate into cation and anion. While the covalent compound contains a strong intermolecular bond. Let us see the nature of KOH.

KOH is the ionic compound. Because it dissociates into cation and anions. The atoms in the KOH cannot have a strong intermolecular bond. KOH when dissolve in water it forms its aqueous solution. It dissociates into K+ cation and OH- anions.

Is KOH corrosive?

Corrosive substances are substances which irreversibly affect other substances. Which can affect the chemical reaction. Let us find out whether the KOH is corrosive or not.

KOH is highly ätzend in nature. It irreversibly affects the other substances in a chemical reaction. Generally, corrosion term deals with the effect caused due to chemicals in contact with living tissues.

Is KOH conductive?

Conductive substances have the ability to carry heat and electricity. When these substances are in an aqueous solution. Let us figure out the conductivity of KOH.

 KOH is conductive in nature. Because in an aqueous solution KOH dissociates into its OH- anions and K+ cation. Both the ions have the capability to carry electricity.

Is KOH exothermic or endothermic?

In the exothermic reaction, substances liberated energy in the form of heat. While endothermic reactions absorbed energy. Let us discuss the nature of KOH.

KOH is exothermic in nature. When potassium reacts with water it forms KOH in this reaction, they release energy in the form of heat. Due exothermic nature of potassium it releases energy. KOH can not absorb heat. 

Is KOH nucleophile?

The nucleophile has the capability to donate electrons and has a negative charge on itself. Let us determine whether KOH is nucleophile or not.

KOH is called nucleophile when it dissociates into OH- ions this hydroxide ion has a tendency to donate electrons to the electrophile. Hence act as a nucleophile with a negative charge on itself.

Is KOH monoprotic diprotic or triprotic?

When only one OH- ion is formed on complete ionization, it is called monoprotic bases. If two, it is diprotic. If three it is triprotic. Let us find out about KOH.

KOH is a monoprotic base. The aqueous solution of KOH dissociates into One OH – ion and K+ ion. It forms only one OH- ion.

Is KOH more basic than NaOH?

Basic nature has a tendency to give electron pairs and its polarizability.  Let us discuss who is more basic KOH or NaOH.

KOH is more basic than NaOH. Due to large atoms and high polarizability KOH donate electron pair easily.  While due to the small size NaOH take some time for ionization. KOH dissociates into K+ und OH - Ionen.

Is KOH neutral?

Any substance is said to be neutral when it is neither acidic nor basic means it shows a pH of 7. Let us know the nature of KOH.

KOH is not neutral rather basic in nature. Because it has the capacity to accept a hydrogen ion or donate electron pair. It is highly basic in nature because it shows pH in the range of 10 to 13.

Is KOH oxidizing agent?

Oxidizing agents are substances which accept electrons. These agents remove at least one electron from another substance. Let us determine the nature of KOH.

KOH is not an oxidizing agent because it cannot accept electrons. It only dissociates itself into ions. So, it is an ionic compound.

Is KOH organic or inorganic?

Organic compounds are made up of O, H and carbon. While inorganic compound mostly does not contain carbon. Let us find out if KOH is organic or inorganic.

KOH is inorganic in nature mostly white solid.  It does not contain carbon also it has not any C-H bond.

Is KOH polar or nonpolar?

Polar solvent has partial positive and negative charges. While non-polar solvent has not any charges.  Let us see if KOH is polar or non-polar.

KOH is polar in nature. Because it dissociates into K+ and OH – ion which has a partial positive and negative charge .

Is KOH a reagent?

Reagents are the mixture or solutions which can initiate the chemical reaction. Let us find out whether KOH is a reagent.

KOH is act as a reagent used in dehydrohalogenation reaction. In this reaction KOH act as reagent initiate the chemical reaction by replacing hydroxide ion with halogen.


In the above article we have discussed about important facts of KOH . Some of these facts are Lewis structure. It shows sp3 hybridization with linear geometry and 1800 bond angle, it has 8 valence electrons, with zero formal charge, nature of KOH , state of KOH etc.

Darshana Fendarkar

Hallo .... Ich bin Darshana Fendarkar, ich habe meinen Ph.D. von der Universität Nagpur. Mein Fachgebiet ist Anorganische Chemie. Ich habe eine Erfahrung als Chemiker bei Earthcare Pvt. Ltd. Außerdem habe ich 2 Jahre Erfahrung im Unterrichten. Derzeit arbeite ich mit Lambdageek als Fachexperte zusammen. Verbinden wir uns über LinkedIn-https://www.linkedin.com/in/dr-darshana-fendarkar-00380540

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